What Are The Types of Pneumatic Systems?

Pneumatic Systems

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Pneumatics has been playing an essential role as a technology in the performance of mechanical work for a very long time. It is also being used to develop automation solutions.  Pneumatic systems are more or less similar to hydraulic systems. However, in these systems, compressed air is used in place of hydraulic fluid.

A Festo pneumatic system is a system which uses compressed air to transmit and control energy. Pneumatic systems are used widely in various industries.  Most pneumatic systems depend on a constant supply of compressed air in order to make them work. An air compressor provides this compressed air. The compressor sucks in air from the atmosphere and stores it in a high-pressure tank called a receiver. This compressed air is then transported to the system through a series of pipes and valves.

Pneumatic systems generate force from the air already contained within a system. Working energy is stored under pressure, and valves release the pressure, which allows the air to expand with huge force. The air will continue to expand until it reaches the level of the atmospheric pressure. Pneumatic systems are most effective for situations that do not require a lot of power and within limited spaces.

Types Of Pneumatic Systems

  • Dilute-Phase

Dilute-phase pneumatics moves powders or particles down a path at a high gas velocity. The dilute-phase pneumatic system does not require to perfectly calibrate itself towards the material transported through the system, in contrast to the dense-phase pneumatic system.

  • Dense-Phase

With dense-phase pneumatics, Festo India, the line pressure is made to match the process material’s characteristics, therefore allowing for a solid material to convert into a liquid state while moving at a slower velocity. Dense-phase conveying provides a medium for the transportation of abrasive materials within the pneumatic system without causing any damage to the internal system. The liquefied material can get plugged up in the system, so there are boosters that fire air to dislodge the clogged material.

  • Vacuum-Based

Pneumatic systems are either pressure-based or vacuums. Vacuums pull objects towards them, and on the other hand, pressurized systems push or move objects away from them. The vacuum system works most effectively when the object is being sent to only one area or location. Vacuum systems allow for objects to be very easily lifted from open containers, unlike pressurized systems, which should maintain closed lines to maintain control over the moved object.

Further, the vacuum system does not apply heat to the object. These systems also have fewer leak problems for which they are more commonly used when handling hazardous materials. The materials are separated by filter receivers or cyclone separators.

  • Pressure-Based

The pressurized pneumatic system is more effective when the object is sent to one of the various delivery points since engineers can build diverter valves into the system. Diverter valves are those parts that open and close to control the airflow through the system. Pressurized systems allow operators to raise the pressure as high as they require it to be, which is an option that is not found on vacuum systems.

When the objects reach the end of the line, they are separated either by a filter receiver, a process vessel, or a cyclone separator. The pressurized system can carry objects over longer distances and can also carry heavier objects. A positive displacement blower, which is a device that traps air in a certain amount before releasing it, moves objects through a line, with the pressure controlled by a rotary airlock valve.

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