Steel Casting Production: Properties and Composition

Steel Casting Production


Nowadays, a number of different metals are put into use for the process of casting. One such metal is Steel. Steel Casting also involves various forms of steel. Steel Casting is a stronger and better option when cast irons do not help in providing a good product in case of strength, durability, and resistance.

Various products today are examples of items produced by steel casting such as hydroelectric turbine wheels, pump castings, valves, turbocharger turbines, etc.

Steel Casting is a ferrous amalgam with the greatest carbon substance of around 0.75%. Steel castings are solid metal substances produced by filling the void inside a mold with fluid steel.

Cast steels can be produced with a wide scope of properties. The physical properties of cast steel change fundamentally relying upon heat treatment and chemical composition.

They are chosen to match execution prerequisites of the planned application. The process of the casting of steel involves heating the iron mixed with the components to make alloy and then pouring the molten metal into sand molds.

The carbon contents are varied to produce different grades of steel, and in the normal course the carbon content percentage in cast sell is less than iron, and it is in the proportion of 0.12% vs. 2%.

It is the reason that cast steel is more malleable than iron. As cast steel is more ductile and has bending-properties, they are widely used in areas where the load-bearing features are needed from the metal.

The chemical composition of steel cast has a noteworthy bearing on execution properties and is regularly utilized to arrange steel or allocate standard designations.

Properties of Steel Casting

Let us take a look at some of the properties of steel casting:

  • Machinability – Various products that are achieved after the process of casting is competed need to be machined to allow it to get the accurate tolerances and the finishing touches that are desired by the manufacturer. Among the various types of steel, carbon steel is the easiest type of steel that can be machined.
  • Ductility – The type of steel that has low carbon content is also less in the scale of hardness and therefore has high ductility. High ductility allows it to perform better under great tensile strength and does not deform.
  • Strength – Certain types of steel has a higher amount of carbon content in it giving it more hardness and thus, has greater strength. That is why steel casting manufacturers have a much better business in today’s world where people require products that are strong and can withstand a greater amount of pressure.
  • Toughness – Since steel is a strong metal and gives rise to strong products, these also have a high toughness rate. Increased ductility is associated with greater toughness.

Some other properties of steel casting include- wear resistance, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and weldability.

Composition of Steel Casting

Let us now take a look at the chemical composition of cast steel.

  • Carbon Cast Steel – The content of carbon present in the cast steel can be used to classify the different types of cast steel. Low carbon cast steel (0.2% carbons) is softer and is not quite resistant to heat. Medium carbon cast steel (0.2-0.5% carbon) is slighter less soft and can withstand the heat of low to medium temperatures. Maximum hardness and heat resistance are acquired from the high carbon content cast steel (more than 0.5% carbon).
  • Alloy Cast Steel – Categorized as low (less than 8% alloy) or high (more than 8% alloy) alloy cast steel, low-alloy is somewhat similar to the normal carbon cast steel, although higher in hardness. The high-alloy is used particularly to get castings that are resistant to corrosion, heat and wear and tear.


The high liquefying point of steel and the absence of technology accessible to soften and process metals deferred the improvement of a steel casting industry. These difficulties were overwhelmed by furnace technology advances. Furnaces are stubborn lined vessels that contain the “charge” which is the material to be softened and gives vitality to liquefying. There are mainly two types: Electric Arc Furnace and Induction Furnace.

1)  Electric Arc Furnace

The electric arc furnace melts groups of metal alluded to as “heats” by methods for an electric arc between graphite terminals. Electric arc furnaces pursue a tap-to-tap working cycle:

  • Furnace charging
  • Liquefying
  • Refining
  • De-slagging
  • Tapping (or tap out)
  • Furnace Pivot

2)  Induction Furnace

An induction furnace is an electrical heater where warm energy is moved by induction. A copper coil encompasses the non-conductive charge holder, and an exchanging current is run through the loop to make an electromagnetic induction inside the charge.

The Induction Furnaces are equipped for softening most metals, and they can be worked with minimal liquefy loss. The disadvantage is that small refining of the metal is feasible. In contrast to an electric arc furnace, the steel can’t be changed.

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